Annex A - Group Research Proposal





Group Project Proposal (Science)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE
INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE
Names: Rohan Anil Khurana, Justin Goh, Elliot Virk and John Gao Jia Hao
Class: S2-06
Group Reference:D    
1.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
[   X ] Test a hypothesis: Hypothesis-driven research


[ ] Measure a value: Experimental research (I)
[ ] Measure a function or relationship: Experimental research (II)
[ ] Construct a model: Theoretical sciences and applied mathematics
[ ] Observational and exploratory research
[ ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research


Introduction

We are group D from S2-06. Our ISS project is on how different music affects the rate of plant growth. Our hypothesis is that among these music, classical music shall be most effective in the growth of plants (http://musique-pour-soigner-les-plantes.weebly.com/uploads/5/1/5/9/51596/tanshen-study_music_plants_mais_2009.pdf) We hope that our findings can be used to improve crop growth and yield in greenhouses, thus making it easier for developing countries to grow food for the citizens.


2.    Write a research proposal of your interested topic in the following format
An investigation on the effect that different music  have on plant growth in terms of height


A.    Question being addressed

What is hertz
Hertz is a unit of frequency (of change in state or cycle in a sound wave, alternating current, or other cyclical waveform) of one cycle per second.
What are pitches
Pitch is a perceptual property that allows the ordering of sounds on a frequency-related scale. Pitches are compared as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies, which require sound whose frequency is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise.[3] Pitch is a major auditory attribute of musical tones, along with the duration, loudness, and timbre.
Various researches have proved that plants respond to acoustic energy in profound ways. It increases their rate of growth, their size and influences their overall health. Dan Carlson, after a thorough research over a span of many years, had reached a conclusion that the medley of frequencies originating between 3,000 to 5,000 kHz helps the stomata of plants to open up quicker. This helps them absorb nutrients more efficiently. It took Dan about fifteen years to develop a foliage spray designed such that it is used beneficially with the sound frequencies. This delay happened as the ability and desire of the plant to take up nutrition was altered due to its enhanced capability. Carlson calls this spray as the "Sonic Bloom". His findings have proved to be beneficial for countless farmers and have resulted in -- according to the Guinness Book -- the largest indoor plant on record. The Purple Passion was treated with the sonic bloom process. It grew to be 1,300 feet tall and was alive even after 25 years. Its normal lifespan, however, is 18 months and it grows not more than 18-feet tall. The book, "Secrets of the Soil", writes about Sonic Bloom and its miraculous results. Sonic Bloom is also sold on the market by industry wholesalers.


Music is able to speed up seed germination and enhance plant growth.. Music can be used in plant nurseries to speed up seed germination and help us grow healthier plants.





Green Beans Information
Does Sound really have an effect on music?
According to Sir Jagadis Chandra Bose, an Indian plant physiologist and physicist, concluded that plants react to the attitude with which they were nurtured. The Effect of Music on Plant Growth. (2014, May 28). Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://hubpages.com/hub/the-effect-of-music-on-plant-growth)He also proved that plants, just like human beings, are sensitive to external environments such as light, cold, heat and noise.  Music Affect Plant Growth AS the pressure from a sound wave will create vibrations that will be picked up by plants. Plant does not hear the music. It feels the vibration of the sound wave. The protoplasm, i.e. the living matter in the form of translucent substance of which all animals and plant cells are composed, is always in a state of perpetual movement. The vibration picked up by the plant will speed up this protoplasmic movement in the cells. This stimulation will then affect the system and may improve its 'performance' such as the manufacture of more nutrients that will give a stronger and better plant.


Contents of Planting Container
When planting indoors, biodegradable containers are more appropriate. Seeds should be planted about 4 inches apart and 1 to 1 1/2 inches deep. If you are using 8-inch containers, plant one seed per container. There is also need a heat and light source so have a heat lamp or plant lamp to keep the seeds plenty warm and bright or  possibly a heat pad to go under your seed trays to keep the soil at a proper temperature. Use a fluorescent lamp to heat and light your seeds and get a special white bulb which reduces heat and will keep from burning them. Incandescent bulbs don't efficiently supply the needed light for plants. Remember that fluorescent bulbs must be within a 3-4 inches of the plant to be an effective source of light. They work best for seedlings or small plants, for this reason. Symptoms of low light are slow growth, elongated or spindly plants, and plants bending towards the light source.
Planting
Beans need warmth. Most beans require a soil temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit or higher to germinate well; lima beans need at least a 70 F soil temperature while air temperatures range from 65°F to 85°F. Germination is poor as soil temperature is below 50 F. Cold air temperatures (even above freezing) can injure plants and reduce yields. Cotton temperatures should be at least 55°F for good seed germination and they should receive six to eight hours or more of sunlight every day for optimum growth. Greenhouses should receive at least 6 hours of direct sunlight a day. Soaking seeds overnight in warm water will help speed up the germination process after they are planted. Irrigate beans immediately after planting. Keep the seedbed moist, but not soggy, for the first week until germination occurs. Reduce watering to once every three days after the first week. Water as needed after beans become established, usually about twice a week. The best quality of beans that we can measure is from its skin and color. If the skin is soft, green, and has a firm texture without brown spots and bruises, so you can know that it is the best quality beans. Any light intensity is fine


Diseases?:
To reduce disease spread, do not work among wet plants.
Bacterial blights - Avoid wetting foliage if possible. Water early in the day so aboveground plant parts will dry as quickly as possible. Avoid crowding plants. Space apart to allow air circulation.


WATERING?:
Green beans tend to need about ½ inch of water per week, but container-grown crops tend to need more frequent watering. Keep an eye on them as they develop to see how quickly the soil dries out. It should be kept moist but never muddy. Water in the morning and try to keep the leaves dry. Give the plants about 1 inch (2.5 cm) of water weekly. Creating the bean pod takes photosynthesis energy along with a generous water supply; plants use approximately 1/2 inch of water each day during the blossom and pod growth period. As a result, the plants should be watered daily to replace the water up taken by the root system during the development period. Water while the sun is out to reduce water spots on the foliage.
B.    Hypotheses



Classical music shall be most effective in the growth of plants


Independent Variable: The different genres of music.


Dependent Variable: Length, mass and number leaves of the plant.


Constant variable: Type of plant (Green beans), length and mass of plant at the start of the experiment, amount of cotton, brightness of light, heat, type and amount of white lights lamps, type of speakers, size of box, time light is left on and time music is left playing in every box.  


C.    Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


Equipments required
1.png
2.png
Setup for plants with speakers (Box A, B, C, D & E)
Measure for construction will be stated later.






Procedures: Detail all procedures and experimental design to be used for data collection
Procedures Steps


  1. Buy 6 cardboard boxes and glue the foams onto inner sides of the boxes and label them Box A , Box B, Box C, Box C, Box D, Box E and control Box (Box A, B, C, D & E are the boxes with different music while the control box has no music).  Each of the Boxes A, B, C, D & E must contain a white light bulbs lamp, a speaker, thumb-drive and 3 plastic bowls (Each containing moist cotton and a green bean seed)  while the control box should contain a white bulb lamp and 3 plastic bowls (Each containing moist cotton and a green bean seed) with NO speaker. All boxes should be soundproofed with a layer of foam.
  2. Place the same amount of cotton(Amount cotton use will be measured by a weighing scale to ensure an equal amount of cotton is used. (Weight: 4.8grams) into each of the 18 plastic bowls.
  3. Place a green bean at the centre of each of the plastic bowls. (Each green bean has been weighed and each green bean used has the same weight of 0.06 grams)
  4. After that, place 3 of the plastic bowls into each of the cardboard boxes A, B, C, D, E and control box.
  5. Place each of the 6 cardboard boxes in John’s house.
  6. Ensure that all windows and doors are closed in the room.
  7. Plug the wires of the white bulb lamp and the speakers(Speakers are only for Box A, B, C, D, E because the control setup does not have any)  into the the timer for the lights, then onto the adapter and finally into the  sockets and switch them on.
  8. Plug in the thumb drive into the 5 speakers containing the different music.(This is only for Box A, B, C, D, E because the control setup does not have any music or sound being played.)
  9. Ensure that the music are playing for (Box A, B, C, D, E) and the light bulbs are all working for all 6 setups.(Box A-Dubstep, Box B-Classical, Box C-Jazz, Box D-Country, Box E-Rock)


Preparation is on Monday - Thursday  while experiment starts on Friday (8 pm) till Tuesday(the next week)


Steps to do on the first day of activity - Friday
(8 pm) - On the switch for the white bulb, and ensure that the speakers are playing Dubstep in box A, Classical in box B, Jazz in box C, Country in box D & Rock in box E
(Speakers are only for Box A, B, C, D, E because the control setup does not need any and Speaker will be playing different types of music)
Record the total mass of the plastic bowls and it’s seeds before adding water.


-Daily activity (Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday)
9 a.m.
  1. Record the mass, number of leaves & height of the plant and note it on the section of the table below.  
  2. Measure 6 ml of water in measuring syringe and add it to each set-up
  3. Switch on the white light switch and set the time of the amount of electricity powering the lamp for 8 hours while for the speaker, however, do not connect to any timer.
  4. Take a picture of each plant every Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday(the pictures will be used for comparison at the end of the experiment).
  5. Record the information on the Data Analysis table below.
5 a.m.
      6)   The lights of the lamp will automatically switch off.


• Risk and Safety: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the Data/results that answer research questions or hypotheses


This is an example of one of the recording chart that we will use to record our data every day for each of the boxes, each of the plants in the boxes and the 4 different variables that we will record. There are 6 charts for each plant and thus 30 charts in total for all the 5 days. There is also 6 charts containing the average of everything at the end.


Procedure:
At 9.AM every night, the person-in-charge of watering the plant and switching on the light will take the data and set the amount of electricity to pass through the lamp for 8 hour only and measure (Place the information of every plant (E.g Box A Plant 1)  respectively at the it’s place at the table )
Measure:
  • The height of the plant using a ruler
  • Count the number of leaves
  • Mass of the plastic bowls and it’s plant mass
  • Subtract the mass of the plastic bowls and it’s plant mass
  • with the mass of the old mass finding the plant growth mass.
  • The person will then place the new-found information respectively on the data table provided.


D. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major references (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order.


Agriculture and Environmental, C. (2014, August 3). Home Garden Green Beans (C 1006). Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.cfm?number=C1006


Belete, P. (2012, September 13). Nazret.com. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://nazret.com/blog/index.php/2012/09/13/ethiopia-millions-of-ethiopians-face-severe-food-shortages-irin


Godbole, M. (2013, January 19). Does Music Affect Plant Growth? Retrieved January 16, 2015, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/does-music-affect-plant-growth.html


How, W. (2014, December 1). Retrieved January 19, 2015, from  http://www.wikihow.com/Grow-Green-Beans


How, W. (2014, December 15). How to Grow Plants from Seed. Retrieved January 19, 2015, from http://www.wikihow.com/Grow-Plants-from-Seed


Hofstrand, D. (2014, February 3). Can We Meet the World's Growing Demand for Food? Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://www.agmrc.org/renewable_energy/renewable_energy/can-we-meet-the-worlds-growing-demand-for-food/


Masley, S. (2009, March 12). Growing Green Beans, Planting Green Beans. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from http://www.grow-it-organically.com/growing-green-beans.html


RUTHERFORD-FORTUNATI, A. (2013, June 23). Retrieved January 19, 2015, from   http://gentleworld.org/green-beans-an-easy-beginners-guide-to-growing/


The Effect of Music on Plant Growth. (2014, May 28). Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://hubpages.com/hub/the-effect-of-music-on-plant-growth
Varner, W. (n.d.). Does Music Affect the Growth of Plants. Retrieved January 13, 2015, from https://docs.google.com/a/s2014.sst.edu.sg/presentation/d/1mxwiSK_4LVr9X4apl7T5tqflmXo5fEg8UpKPGsvssEY/embed?hl=en&size=s&slide=id.p13


University, C. (2006, October 6). Explore Cornell - Home Gardening - Vegetable Growing Guides - Growing Guide. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from http://www.gardening.cornell.edu/homegardening/scene8f63.html


This, G. (2013, June 10). How To Grow Green Beans In Containers | Grow This! Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://www.growthis.com/how-to-grow-green-beans-in-containers/


Tan Shen, M., Huang Shiqin, J., & Bee Lian, O. (n.d.). Investigating The Effects Of sound Energy On Plant Growth. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from http://musique-pour-soigner-les-plantes.weebly.com/uploads/5/1/5/9/51596/tanshen-study_music_plants_mais_2009.pdf


Jobs, S. (n.d.). Soundtrack Pro 3 User Manual. Retrieved January 20, 2015, from https://documentation.apple.com/en/soundtrackpro/usermanual/index.html#chapter=B§ion=1&tasks=true



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