Annex B - Research Data

ABSTRACT and INTRODUCTION
Abstract: Our ISS project is focused on the effects that music has on plants in terms of growth. We have set up 6 separate experiments, 5 of which contain different genres of music while 1 contains no music as it is a control set up. Our experiment aims to find out which genre of music has the greatest impact on plant growth. This information can be used to help greenhouses to produce higher crop yield to benefit lesser developed countries that require the crops or to produce enough food to sustain the growing population. From our results, we have found out that Jazz is the best for growing plants. With this, we can suggest greenhouses to play Jazz music in the background so that the crops/plants will grow faster and there will be much more yield.

Evaluation of a minimum of 3-4 resources in both introductory paragraphs:
In the investigative report done by Tan Shen Mynn and Huang Shiqin, jean, they reported that the louder the sound the better the effect it had on the plant as they recorded a 60% increase in the height as compared to their control box. This is further backed up by Will Vareners report that showed that the plants exposed to rock music,typically louder than other types of music, were 4cm taller than the control while classical music, usually quieter than rock music, were only 1cm taller.
Independent var., Dependent var., 3 Constant var, Hypothesis. :
Independent variable: Our independent variable is the genres of music being played in each set up
Dependent variable: Our dependent variables are the height of the plant and the number of leaves
Constant variable: The constant variables are the mass of the bean at the start of the experiment, the amount of water given per day, amount of cotton and duration inside the box.





METHODS

Identification of variables (Look into Intro or Methods paragraphs):
Procedure:
  1. Buy 6 cardboard boxes and glue the foams onto inner sides of the boxes and label them Box A , Box B, Box C, Box C, Box D, Box E and control Box (Box A, B, C, D & E are the boxes with different music while the control box has no music).  Each of the Boxes A, B, C, D & E must contain a white light bulbs lamp, a speaker, thumb-drive and 3 plastic bowls (Each containing moist cotton and a green bean seed)  while the control box should contain a white bulb lamp and 3 plastic bowls (Each containing moist cotton and a green bean seed) with NO speaker. All boxes should be soundproofed with a layer of foam.
  2. Place the same amount of cotton(Amount cotton use will be measured by a weighing scale to ensure an equal amount of cotton is used. (Weight: 4.8grams) into each of the 18 plastic bowls.
  3. Place a green bean at the centre of each of the plastic bowls. (Each green bean has been weighed and each green bean used has the same weight of 0.06 grams)
  4. After that, place 3 of the plastic bowls into each of the cardboard boxes A, B, C, D, E and control box.
  5. Place each of the 6 cardboard boxes in John’s house.
  6. Ensure that all windows and doors are closed in the room.
  7. Plug the wires of the white bulb lamp and the speakers(Speakers are only for Box A, B, C, D, E because the control setup does not have any)  into the the timer for the lights, then onto the adapter and finally into the  sockets and switch them on.
  8. Plug in the thumb drive into the 5 speakers containing the different music.(This is only for Box A, B, C, D, E because the control setup does not have any music or sound being played.)
  9. Ensure that the music are playing for (Box A, B, C, D, E) and the light bulbs are all working for all 6 setups.(Box A-Dubstep, Box B-Classical, Box C-Jazz, Box D-Country, Box E-Rock)


Preparation is on Monday - Thursday  while experiment starts on Friday (8 pm) till Tuesday(the next week)


Steps to do on the first day of activity - Friday
(8 pm) - On the switch for the white bulb, and ensure that the speakers are playing Dubstep in box A, Classical in box B, Jazz in box C, Country in box D & Rock in box E
(Speakers are only for Box A, B, C, D, E because the control setup does not need any and Speaker will be playing different types of music)
Record the total mass of the plastic bowls and it’s seeds before adding water.


-Daily activity (Saturday, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday & Wednesday)
9 a.m.
  1. Record the mass, number of leafs & height of the plant and note it on the section of the table below.  
  2. Measure 6 ml of water in measuring syringe and add it to each set-up
  3. Switch on the white light switch and set the time of the amount of electricity powering the lamp for 8 hours while for the speaker, however do not connect to any timer.
  4. Take a picture of each plant every Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday(the pictures will be used for comparison at the end of the experiment).
  5. Record the information on the Data Analysis table below.


Analysis of Results:


Results:
Box c had the had the tallest plant at the end of the experiment followed by Box A. We can conclude that jazz music has the best effect on plants, therefore is music is to be played in greenhouses, jazz music should be played.


Elements of the Results section:





















Recording of data:
First Day (Friday)





















Second Day (Saturday)
Third Day (Sunday)


Fourth Day (Monday)
























Fifth Day (Tuesday)


Accuracy: 3 similar green beans for each different music. In total, there will be a total of 18 plants. 3 Green bean per box allowing us to find the average of the different increase in the green bean. Hence, allows us to predict the most probable future outcome and makes our conclusion more precise and accurate.
Our height and number of leaf are very reasonable digit and it is understandable as it is within or more than the growing category of normal green beans. However, our mass is a completely different thing because as you know, the weight of a green bean plant is very small. Hence, during the days of the experiment,  the mass of the plants decrease (Possible because the mass of the plants is so insignificant that water evaporation has taken away it’s mass).
Precision: Our heights & Mass are rounded off to 1 Decimal place


DISCUSSIONS
Analysis of results Key findings:


Key findings: From the data we collected, we found out clearly that music does affect plants. In the last Day, Jazz(5.1 cm) being the first in boosting the plant in growth of height, followed by dubstep(5 cm) and classical(4.7). In weight,  classical(1.6g) wins in boosting the plant’s growth in weight, followed by jazz(1.3g) and dubstep(0.5). Jazz was the first for height(5.1 cm) whereas classical (4.7 cm) came in the third losing to dubstep(5 cm). Both Jazz and dubstep have 2 leaves at the end of the experiment whereas classical had only one leaf. Dubstep did unexpectedly well. However, Classical (1.6 Grams) won both Jazz (1.3 Grams) and Dubstep (0.5 Grams) in mass. However, Jazz won Classical in both areas and the different between Classical and Jazz in mass were not very significant (Different on 0.3 Grams) and jazz beat Dubstep in two area(Height and mass) and same for number of leafs.   In the Data for the control plant, height is 3.6 cm while mass is o.4 grams and the number of leaves is 1.  For the increase in mass except for box D and E, the rest of the boxes have grown heavier than the control. For the increase in height, all the boxes have grown taller than the control. For the number of leaf box A and C both have more leaves than the control.  Hence, from this experiment, we can tell that music does affect the mass of the plant due to the difference between the classical results and the boxes with the music.


Explanation of key findings:
 Sound is a wave, and more specifically, a pulse wave. This simply means that it is formed by areas of higher and lower pressure in the atmosphere through which it travels. Terms such as "amplitude," when used in reference to sound, are actually referring to the plot of the air pressure versus time on a graph. Now, it is difficult to believe that such (extremely small) fluctuations in air pressure could have any effect on a plant's growth. Various researches have proved that plants respond to acoustic energy in profound ways. It increases their rate of growth, their size and influences their overall health. Dan Carlson, after a thorough research over a span of many years, had reached a conclusion that the medley of frequencies originating between 3,000 to 5,000 kHz helps the stomata of plants to open up quicker. This helps them absorb nutrients more efficiently.
 
In another similar experiment conducted by another team, After one week of experimenting, the following were the results. The one that was in the best condition was the plant that was in the room with classical music. The second best plant was the one in the room with no music and the one that didn't do so good was the one in the room with rock music. (http://www.miniscience.com/projects/plantmusic/)
Similar to their team, Our rock did not go so well and the control did better than it. And our classical did better than both of them.


Finding of hypothesis:


Evaluation of a hypothesis: Our hypothesis is that Classical music shall be most effective in the growth of plants.   We came up with our hypothesis as there are many experiments whether plants are affected by music and here are the reports:
Eugene Canby, a Canadian engineer, exposed wheat to J.S. Bach's violin sonata and observed an increase in yield by 66%. This further reinforced the works of Dr. T.C. Singh who had observed positive results from playing classical music to plants. (http://hubpages.com/hub/the-effect-of-music-on-plant-growth)
And Surprisingly, jazz tend to have a beneficial effect compared to rock or country music. It produces better and more abundant growth! MythBusters, a science entertainment TV program, did a similar experiment and concluded that the plant reacted well to any type of music whether rock, country, jazz or classical. Their experiments, however, were commented as not thoroughly conducted and highly debatable. (http://hubpages.com/hub/the-effect-of-music-on-plant-growth)
Hence, We are confused which type of music has a better effect on plants. But on the jazz experiment for the Mythbusters did not go that well so we finally, we chose Classical.
However, in the end, Jazz was top among all the music, whereas classical lost to Jazz in many areas. Jazz was the first for increase in height(5.1 cm) whereas classical (4.7 cm) came in the third losing to dubstep(5 cm). Both Jazz and dubstep have 2 leaves whereas classical had only one leaf. Dubstep did unexpectedly well. However, Classical (1.6 Grams) won both Jazz (1.3 Grams) and Dubstep (0.5 Grams) in mass. However, Jazz won Classical in both areas and the different between Classical and Jazz in mass were not very significant (Different on 0.3 Grams) and jazz beat Dubstep in two areas(Height and mass) and both have the same for number of leafs.  
Maybe our experiment and the mythbusters experiment on Jazz progress are not really similar. Maybe our plant’s experienced a different environment such as different temperatures, different amounts of light that affected the plants growth and different amounts of water that we gave to the plant that led to our different results. The rate of water evaporation is also different in both experiments . We also used cotton while the Mythbusters might have used soil to conduct their experiment. There are endless possibilities why our results are different.
Areas for improvement:
We could have extended our experiment timeline, hence giving us more results and data to confirm that our final result is accurate as working with a small number is not too accurate at times such as when the mass of the plants decrease(Possible because the mass of the plants is too insignificant that water evaporation takes away the mass).
We could also have paid more attention to our equipments as for the speaker, we did not realise that music cannot be played during charging when we brought it. Hence, we could only play the music for 6 hours. If we paid attention to it, there would be a more obvious growth in the plants. We also did not putting in much consideration on the setting up of the equipment as when we did it, we realised that we need a lot of plugs and during the setting up since some lamps did not work and during the experiment time, a lamp suddenly malfunctioned. Hence, we have to stop the entire experiment.
Thirdly, We should have proper time management. Due to the limited time and CCA and other activities, we rushed to complete our work on time. Hence, I think that if we can improve on time management, we would be able to produce better quality work.
Conclusions (7%)
Summary of findings: In conclusion, we are convinced that certain types of music has an positive effect on plant growth such as Jazz, Classical & Dubstep defeated the control plant in many areas. However, rock & country music lost to the control in mass but beat control in height and is the same in the number of leaves. Hence, we can say that music can have a positive and negative effect on plant growth. Jazz had the best plant growth between all the plants. Both Dubstep and Classical effect on plant growth was also very high. Hence, we can conclude by saying that Jazz is the most preferred method for growing plants and should be used in the greenhouse to improve crop growth and yield.


Practical Applications:

Higher Quality Plants and an improvement in the agriculture area.
Plants are an essential part of the food chain required by all living things to survive. The world’s growing population has raised the concern of our ability to feed the world’s growing requirements for food in the long term and placed great pressure on our environment and it’s Plant resource. Food demand is expected to increase substantially by the middle of this century. And while the world is rushing to harvest produce numerous quantity of food, people are demanding for higher quality and fresher products. Since we know that some pitches of sound have an positive effect on the growth of plants, our investigation could be proven to be a solution to the global issue. Giving the world better quality plants and might massively impact the agriculture area.  

In countries such as Ethiopia, a country confronted by climate change, population growth and poor agricultural faces food shortage. If the farmers are able to incorporate our idea(using a certain type of sound to improve the growth of the plant) into their daily agricultural activity, this will help produce fresher, more appealing and nourishing plants.



Areas for further study:
How the specific pitches might affect the plants growth, side effects that we may not have seen or recorded, the effects that sound waves have on plants, whether volume should be a considered factor.

Variety of sources:
Our sources vary from slides to research papers to teaching websites

Reliability and Relevance:
Our sources are all cross checked with each other to ensure reliability. We go through each source thoroughly to ensure relevance to the issue we are addressing.

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